In the context of SDLC, I know that Verification and Validation is about verifying the deliverable input from previous phase and validating the output of the current one.
And that testing is a phase among the SDLC phases.
Based on my research, I found from UToronto lecture notes that:
V&V performed by a separate contractor
Which means that IV&V (Independent Verification and Validation) professionals are externally involved in SDLC, and thus have nothing to do with the testing phase.
On the other hand, I find on another course that:
Testing is the most common, but not the only form of V&V
Which means testers are involved in IV&V.
This makes me confused about whether both testing phase and IV&V are made by same person (let's say QA engineer) or the persons doing IV&V are not involved in the testing stage.
Does the job V&V professional exist in the software industry? What relationship exists between QA engineers, testers and IV&V?
How is the V&V process involved during the project management: is it performed continuously within SDLC in the early stages or in the last stages?
Also does the SDLC include IV&V as a stage?